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Specialised Terminology Glossary

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AggregatesA granular product obtained by processing natural materials. It may be sand or gravel produced by natural disintegration of rock, or it may be manufactured by passing rock through a series of crushers.
Aggregate ReserveThat part of an overall aggregate resource considered producible at a profit at the time of classification.
Air OverpressureA pressure wave in the atmosphere produced by the detonation of explosives, consisting of both audible (noise) and inaudible (concussion) energy.
AquiferA permeable geological formation which is capable of storing and yielding water.
AsphaltA natural or artificial mixture in which bitumen is associated with a substantial proportion of mineral matter.
BackfillingPlacement of material into worked-out lands in order to recreate a usable land surface.
BenchA working level in a quarry.
Blast (face) ProfilingProfiling of quarry faces to ensure proper alignment of blast holes and avoidance of problems associated with inadequate or excessive overburden.
BundAn extended mound of soils, overburden or structure erected as a barrier to sight, sound or water. This can also be referred to as 'Berm'.
Clay(i) A specific group of layered silicate materials. (ii) Particles of size less than 2 mm forming rock.
DustAny solid matter emanating from mineral/aggregate working, or from ancillary plant and vehicles, which is borne by the air. Dust particles can vary in size from 1 to 75 micrometresers (microns). Dust is produced at minerals/aggregates extraction sites mainly through the action of crushing and abrasive forces on minerals/aggregates.
FlyrockFragments of rock propelled into the air by a blasting explosion to any area beyond the designated danger zone.
FragmentationA term associated with hard rock quarrying to describe the degree of mechanical breakdown produced by blasting.
GravelIn the British Standard particle size classification, the term denotes granular material in the size range 2 mm to 60 mm.
Impulsive NoiseA noise which is of short duration (typically less than one second), the sound pressure level of which is significantly higher than the background.
Lagoon (Silt)A contained volume of water providing time for the sedimentation of silt (and perhaps clays) to permit re-use or discharge of clean water.
MineralsThe definition given in the Minerals Development Acts 1940 to 1979 is: "Minerals means all substances (other than the agriculture surface of the ground and other than turf or peat) in, on, or under land, whether obtainable by underground or by surface working, and includes all mines whether they are or are not already opened or in work, and also includes the cubic space occupied or formerly occupied by minerals and for greater certainty but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the said word includes all scheduled minerals”.
Overburden Rock, soil which is of no commercial value, overlying the valuable stone. (Overburden has the potential to adversely affect the quality of aggregate produced unless specific measures are provided for its removal prior to the extraction of rock).
Peak Particle Velocity (PPV)A measure of ground vibration magnitude which is the maximum rate of change of ground displacement with time, usually measured in millimetres/second.
Safety BenchThe width of the horizontal rock surface at a given level. Benches are also usually left between the final vertical faces to catch falling rocks.
SandIn the British Standard particle size classification, sand is a granular material in the size range 0.06 mm to 2 mm Screen: A particle-sizing device like a sieve, consisting of a surface which is perforated with holes of a certain size and shape.
ScreeningScreening is a sizing operation using a screen.
SlurryA suspension of mineral particles in water.
TonalityThe degree to which a noise contains audible pure tones. Broadband noise is generally less annoying than noise with identifiable tones.
Wet SuppressionControl of dust levels during processing operations by the use of water sprays into crushers, onto screens or conveyor belt transfer points.

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